Monday, January 26, 2015

My Ancestral Surnames

My known ancestral surnames are:

LEGEND: Surname (Generation from me)

Maternal Surnames

Five Surnames from West Yorkshire, England (e.g., Otley, Burly in Wharfedale, Ilkley, Pool in Wharfedale, Potternewton, Darlington-Durham, Sunderland and Baildon Green)

  Whitehead (1), Horsfield (3), Bailey (4), Mitchell (6) and Manners (6). Hitchcock (need to verify)

Four Surnames from Pizzoni, Catanzaro (Vibo Valentia), Calabria, IT:

  Mesiano (2), Aversa (4), (Nesci (4) OR Di Renzo (4)) and Rizzelli/Rizzello (3). Andreacchi (need to verify)


Paternal Surnames

Six Surnames from Troia, Foggia, Puglia, Italy

  Liguori (1), Lizzi (3), Viola (4), Rezzolla (5), Lo Buono (4), De Leonardis (5)

Four Surnames from Naples, Italy (e.g., Quartiere San Ferdinando)

Vacca (2), Alefaco (5), Esposito (3), Perrella (4)

Four Surnames from Caserta, Italy

  Bove (5), Farina (6), Ziccardi (6), Colini (6)

One Surname from Rome, Roma, Lazio, Italy

    Perrella (5)

One Surname from Palermo, Palermo, Sicilia, Italy

    Ziccardi (4)

-- Robert

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Whitehead Surname analysis

Here is our Whitehead family tree in fan chart.

Whitehead Genealogy
Here is a list of people that are connected to this family genetically.

GEDMatch ID Relationship Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) Ancestry ID CentiMorgans
Comparative ID (A819872) Self Self robertjliguori n/a
A777535 Mother
(1 step)
Mother J.M.W. by
3587.1 (3539-3748)
(2 steps)
Joseph Liguori and Mother J.C.L by
(3 steps)
Walter Whitehead and Grace Mesiano G.I.W. by
Pending Aunt
(3 steps)
Walter Whitehead and Grace Mesiano M.E.E.W. by
None Available
(4 steps)
None Available None Available (...)
(5 steps)
Walter Whitehead and Grace Mesiano J.M.W.S. by
PROCESSING 1st cousin 1x removed
(6 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Ada Mary Elizabeth Ann Horsfield R.S. by
(7 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Ada Mary Elizabeth Ann Horsfield B.S. by
(7 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Ada Mary Elizabeth Ann Horsfield L.S. by
(7 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Ada Mary Elizabeth Ann Horsfield M.A.V. by
A796152 2nd cousin 1x removed
(8 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Ada Mary Elizabeth Ann Horsfield B.A. 105.2
... 3rd cousin
(9 steps)
John Whitehead and Jane Bailey ??? (43-150)
... 3rd cousin
(9 steps)
Richard Horsfield and Mary Ann Whitehead ??? (43-150)
3rd cousin 1x removed
(10 steps)
... ... (~26.56)
... 4th cousin
(11 steps)
Christopher Whitehead and Mary Whitehead ??? (5-50)
4th cousins 1x removed
(12 steps)
... ... (~6.64)
... 5th cousin
(13 steps)
William Whitehead ... (~3.32)
... 5th cousin
(13 steps)
John Whitehead ... (~3.32)
5th cousins 1x removed
(14 steps)
... ... (~1.66 )
... 6th cousin
(15 steps)
... ... (~ 0.83)
6th cousins 1x removed
(16 steps)
... ... (~0.42 )
... 7th cousin
(17 steps)
... ... (~0.2)
7th cousins 1x removed
(18 steps)
... ... (~0.10)
... 8th cousin
(19 steps)
... ... (~0.05)
8th cousins 1x removed
(20 steps)
... ... (~0.025)
... 9th cousin
(21 steps)
... ... (~0.012)

Saturday, January 3, 2015

AncestryDNA Updates its Matching Algorithm

AncestryDNA has updated it's matching algorithm.  The following image depicts the meaning behind the groupings; Extremely High, Very High, High, Good and Moderate.

New AncestryDNA Confidence Groups
Note that I constructed this data from information sourced from various sites.  While I believe this to be accurate, exceptions can or may occur.

-- Robert

Monday, December 8, 2014

Top five Things to Do when starting Genealogy Research

Are you just getting started with genealogy research?  If so this blog post will save you a lot of time!

In getting started with genealogy research... here are the TOP FIVE THINGS YOU SHOULD DO!
  1. Get your Elders Tested
  2. Sit down with your Elders with old Photo Albums
  3. Build out your GEDCOM-based Family Tree
  4. Get your raw Ancestry data on
  5. Get your raw Ancestry data on FTDNA
And here are the top five in further detail...

1. Get your Elders Tested

It doesn't matter what DNA service/test you use to get your Elders tested, just get them tested, as soon as you can.  Also, buy the test for them as they may not want or have the money to put out, so you can cut back on the awkwardness and increase the likelihood of them agreeing to take the test, if you just buy it for em... plus you'll administer it so you will be able to access and control the results which is an added benefit.  AncestryDNA, FTDNA and 23andMe or the top DNA testing groups in IMHO. 

Elders - Genealogy

2. Sit down with your Elders with the old Photo Albums

Gather as much information you can from your family.  The best way to do this is to go up into the attic and find those old boxes of photographs and photo albums.

Old Photo Album

3. Build out your GEDCOM-based Family Tree

Build out your tree with software that let's you either import or export the tree based on the GEDCOM exchange model.   Most, if not all of the genealogy websites that support tree building, support the GEDCOM standard. Tree

4. Get your raw data on

Providing you don't have any issues with exposing the finer details of your DNA to everyone, you should get your DNA on, as soon as you can.  At first glance, you'll be confused at best as for what the site does... but if you have a sharp mind and are good at figuring things out, you may end up using this site more often than any of the others.  Consider spending the $10 bucks on getting the additional features that the site has to offer.

5. Get your data on FTDNA

FTDNA also has some wonderful comparison tools such as it's Chromosome Browser.  If you started out with FTDNA you should be good... if you started out with AncestryDNA you can transfer over with a free trial.  I actually paid around $80 to get my AncestryDNA on their with all the features.  It was worth it as I had several matches that were helpful in extending my tree.


Genealogy is best done when there is lots of supporting data. Consider passing on this post to your friends and family... If they all have trees (i.e. GEDcoms), and are on and FTDNA... you will have lots of info to work from and a strong base to begin and continue your analysis.

As always, I hope this blog post has helped!  Good luck with your research!

-- Robert

Friday, November 28, 2014

Tap water vs Bottled water - the taste test

This thanksgiving, I was part of a discussion as to whether one should buy bottled water (based on taste), or should one just settle for tap water as presumably there is no taste difference.

What better way to resolve this debate then to have our family do a water taste test!  With 12 people available from different age groups, we filled 48 cups with 4 brands of water (including tap), and we had our blind taste test.

Waters being tested for Taste

Individually, each tester sat down with four cups of water, without the knowledge of which type was in each cup.  Each tester was asked the following two questions:

  • Which cup of water is your favorite?
  • Which cup of water do you like the least? 

Here are the results:

Blind Product A
(FIJI Water)
Blind Product B
(Niagara Water)
Blind Product C
(Deer Park Water)
Blind Product D
(Tap Water)
Middle Age Favorite Least Liked
Teenager Favorite Least Liked
Middle Age Favorite
Golden Years Favorite Least Liked
Teenager Favorite Least Liked
Teenager Least Liked Favorite
Child Favorite Least Liked
Middle Age Least Liked Favorite
Young Adult Favorite Least Liked
Middle Age Least Liked Favorite
Middle Age Favorite Least Liked
Child Least Liked Favorite

The end results were that the Deer Park brand was most liked and that the local tap water was the least favorite.

So Yes!!!!  People can tell the difference in the taste of water.  So, if you have the extra money to spend... enjoy and drink up that bottled water!

-- Robert

Thursday, November 6, 2014

How to play tone-structured Chords on the Guitar

If you think about it, a guitar is really a chord machine.   So to really master the guitar, one would really need to master chords.

I haven't been a chord expert, so I decided (in this post) to examine how chords are played on the guitar, but in the contexts of chords based on the number of present tones.  For the following example we will be working with the C major scale.

Let's begin!  For starters, there are six string on the guitar, so it's safe to say there could only be six composite types  of chords that could be played, consisting of 1 - 6 unique tones.  Note: A note is a tone plus duration.
  • 1 tone - monad chord
  • 2 tones - dyad chord
  • 3 tones - triad chord
  • 4 tones - tetrad chord
  • 5 tones - pentad chord
  • 6 tones - hexad chord

By definition, chords consist of three or more tones... but I've found exceptions to this rule with monochords and dichords.

The Monad Chord

Monads, a.k.a, monochords are each made up of one tone.

Monad Type Notation (against C) Interval Examples
Tone N/A 1 C


The Dyad Chord

Dyads, a.k.a., dichords, are made up on the root note and any other note in the scale which are plucked or strummed simultaneously.

Dyad Type Notation (against C) Intervals Examples
? ? 1, 3 C E
? ? 1, 4 C F
Power C5 1, 5 C G
? ? 1, 6 C A

 * In standard tuning, the Third Double Stop can be played across the same fret with the 2 & 3 strings. Also in standard tuning  the Forth Double Stop can be played across the same fret with the 1&2, 3&4, 4&5 or 5&6 strings.

The Triad Chord

 Triads, also known as trichords, are made of three tones.  Here are some popular examples.

Triad Type Notation (against C) Intervals Examples
Major C, CM, Cmaj, CΔ 1, 3, 5 C E G
Minor Cm, CM3, Cmin, C- 1, ♭3, 5 C E♭ G
Diminished C°, Cdim, Cm♭5 1, ♭3, ♭5 C E♭ G♭
Augmented C+, Caug, C+5, CM+5, CM♯5 1, 3, ♯5 C E G♯
Flat fifth C♭5 1, 3, ♭5 C E G♭
Suspended second Csus2 1, 2, 5 C D G
Suspended forth Csus4 1, 4, 5 C F G


The Tetrad Chord

Tetrad, also known as tetrachords, are made up of four tones.  Here are some popular examples.

Tetrad Type Notation (against C) Intervals Examples
Diminished seventh C7, Cdim7 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭♭7 C E G B♭♭
Half-diminished seventh
(minor seventh flat five)
Cø7, Cm75, C−7(5) 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7 C E G B
Minor seventh Cm7, Cmin7, C−7, C−7 1, ♭3, 5, ♭7 C E G B
Minor / major seventh Cm(M7), Cm/maj7, C−(j7), C−Δ7, C−M7 1, ♭3, 5, 7 C E G B
Major seventh CM7, Cmaj7, CΔ7, CΔ7, CΔ7, Cj7 1, 3, 5, 7 C E G B
Augmented seventh
(dominant seventh sharp five)
C+7, Caug7, C7+, C7+5, C75 1, 3, ♯5, ♭7 C E G B
Augmented major seventh C+(M7), CM7+5, CM75, C+j7, C+Δ7 1, 3, ♯5, 7 C E G B
Add ninth / add second C2, Cadd9 1, 3, 5, 9 C E G D
Add fourth / add eleventh C4, Cadd11 1, 3, 5, 11 C E G F
Add sixth, C6 1, 3, 5, 6 C E G A
Major sixth CM6, CMaj6 1, 3, 5, 6 C E G A
Minor sixth Cmin6  1, ♭3, 5, 6 C EG A
Dominant seventh C7, C7, Cdom7 1, 3, 5, ♭7 C E G B
Seventh suspended second C7sus2 1, 2, 5, ♭7 C D G B♭
Seventh suspended forth C7sus4 1, 4, 5, ♭7 C F G B♭
Seventh sharp fifth C7♯5,C7+5 1, 3, ♯5, ♭7 C E G♯ B♭
Seventh flat fifth C7♭5,C7-5 1, 3, ♭5, ♭7 C E G♭ B♭
Mixed Third ... ... ...

The Pentad Chord

Pentads, also known as pentachords, are made up of five tones.  Here are some popular examples.

Pentad Type Notation (against C) Intervals Examples
Dominant ninth C9, Cdom9 1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9 C E G B♭ D
Six-nine C6/9 1, 3, 5, 6, 9 C E G A D
Jazz sus C9sus4 1, 4, 5, ♭7, 9 C F G B♭ D
Minor dominant ninth Cm9, C-9, Cmin9 1, ♭3, 5, ♭7, 9 C E♭ G B♭ D
Major ninth Cmaj9, CM9,CΔ9 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 C E G B D
Seventh sharp ninth C7♯9,C7+9 1, 3, ♯5, ♭7, ♯9 C E G♯ B♭ D♯
Seventh flat ninth C7♭9,C7-9 1, 3, 5, ♭7, 9 C E G B♭ D
Minor-major ninth Cmm9, C-m9, Cminmaj9 1, ♭3, 5, 7, 9 C E♭ G B D
Augmented major ninth C+m9, Caugmaj9 1, 3, ♯5, 7, 9 C E G♯ B D
Augmented dominant ninth C+9, C9#5, Caug9 1, 3, ♯5, ♭7, 9 C E G♯ B♭ D
Half-diminished ninth Cø9 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7, 9 C E♭ G♭ B♭ D
Half-diminished minor ninth Cø♭9 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭7, 9 C E♭ G♭ B♭ D♭
Diminished ninth 9, Cdim9 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭♭7, 9 C E♭ G♭ B♭♭ D
Diminished minor ninth ♭9, Cdim♭9 1, ♭3, ♭5, ♭♭7, ♭9 C E♭ G♭ B♭♭ D♭


The Hexad Chord

Hexads, also known as hexachords, are made up of six tones. Here are some popular examples.

Hexad Type Notation (against C) Intervals Examples
Dominant eleventh Cdom11, C11 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G B D F
Minor eleventh Cm11 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G B D F
Major eleventh CM11, Cmaj11 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G B D F
Minor-Major eleventh CmCM11, C-M11, Cm-11 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G B D F
Augmented-Major eleventh C+M11 1, 3, ♯5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G♯ B D F
Augmented eleventh C+11, C11♯5 1, 3, ♯5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G♯ B D F
Half-Diminished eleventh Cø11 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 ,11 C E G B D F
Diminished eleventh 11 1, 3, 5, ♭♭7, 9 ,11 C E G B♭♭ D F
Thirteenth suspended forth C13sus4 ... ...

'hope this was helpful.  If you find any errors or omissions, please let me know in the comments section below.

-- Robert


Saturday, November 1, 2014

Attributes of a 2012 Martin D-18 Guitar

I currently own a 2012 Martin D-18 guitar. 

What makes this guitar special is all of the features and attributes that come with it.  This blog post is an image walk-through of what the 2012 Martin D-18 guitar looks like.  I cover the following areas...

  • Manufacturer
  • Model
  • Rosette
  • Construction
  • Neck / Joint
  • Headstock and Nut
  • 2012 D-18- Fretboard
  • Bridge / Saddle / Endpins
  • Tuning Machines
  • Pickguard
  • Case

2012 D-18 Manufacturer

 C.F. Martin & Co. (Est. 1833)


2012 D-18 Model

Model: D-18

2012 D-18 - Rosette

Rosette: Style 18

2012 D-18 - Construction

Body Size: D-14 Fret
Top: Solid Sitka Spruce
Side Material: Solid Genuine Mahogany

 Back Material: Solid Genuine Mahogany

2012 D-18 - Neck / Joint

Neck Material: Select Hardwood
Neck Shape: Modified Low Oval Profile w/ Performing Artist Taper
Construction: Mahogany Blocks/Dovetail Neck Joint

2012 D-18 - Headstock and Nut

Nut Material: Bone
Headstock: Solid/Square Taper
Headplate: Solid East Indian Rosewood

2012 D-18 - Fretboard

Fingerboard Material: Solid Black Ebony
Scale Length: 25.4''
Number of Frets Clear: 14
Number of Frets Total: 20
Fingerboard Width at Nut: 1-3/4''
Fingerboard Width at 12th Fret: 2-1/8''
Fingerboard Position Inlays: Old Style 18
Fingerboard Binding: none

2012 D-18 - Bridge / Saddle / Endpins

Bridge Material: Solid Black Ebony
Bridge Style: 1930s Style Belly w/ Drop-In Saddle
Bridge String Spacing: 2-3/16''
Saddle: 16'' Radius/Compensated/Bone
Bridge & End Pins: Black

2012 D-18 - Tuning Machines

Tuning Machines: Nickel Open-Geared w/ Butterbean Knobs

2012 D-18 - Pickguard

Pickguard: Delmar Tortoise Color

2012 D-18 - Case

Case: 445 Hardshell


2012 D-18 - Miscellaneous

Finish Back & Sides: Polished Gloss
Finish Top: Polished Gloss w/ Aging Toner
Finish Neck: Satin
Top Bracing Pattern: Standard ''X'' Scalloped, Forward Shifted
Top Braces: Solid Sitka Spruce 5/16''
Back Purfling: Style 18
Endpiece Inlay: none
Binding: Tortoise Color
Top Inlay Style: Multiple Black/White Boltaron
Endpiece: Delmar Tortoise Color
Heelcap: Tortoise Color

I hope you enjoyed looking at photos of an authentic D-18 Martin guitar. :)

And just one more time... a full look at the front:

 -- Robert

Also... recommended Strings: Martin Studio Performance Lifespan Phosphor Bronze Medium Gauge (MSP7200)