Sunday, October 19, 2014

All about Guitar Modes

Having trouble with guitar modes?  I tried to roll up here some information to help master the basics of the modes of the major chord... quickly.  I do this by answering the following questions:
  • What are Modes?
  • What is the History of the Mode Names?
  • How do I Remember the Mode Names?
  • What is the Quality / Style / Feel of each Mode?
  • What are the Mechanics of the Modes?
  • How Learning Modes helps to Play the Guitar

What are modes?

Modes, as defined in the book "Scales &Modes in the Beginning created especially for Guitarists" by Ron MiddleBrook (CenterStream Publications 1982) is as follows:

"A mode if formed simply be taking a scale, such as the 'C' Major scale, and instead of starting on the note C, you start from any other note in the scale an play up to the SAME note an octave higher."

For example, the key of C has seven modes; IONIAN (I, root), DORIAN (II), PHRYGIAN (III), LYDIAN (IV), MIXOLYDIAN (V), AEOLIAN (VI) and LOCRIAN (VII).  Each mode starts at a different degree, but uses the same notes of the major scale:

I   - C D E F G A B C   
II  - . D E F G A B C D 
III - . . E F G A B C D E
IV  - . . . F G A B C D E F
V   - . . . . G A B C D E F G 
VI  - . . . . . A B C D E F G A 
VII - . . . . . . B C D E F G A B

The following image shows how these modes are played on the guitar.... click on the image to enlarge it.

Guitar Modes of the Major Scale
* Note that the Lydian and Phrygian modes have similar patterns so are easy to remember together, as are Locrian and Ionian.

What is the History of the Mode Names?

The name of the modes came from the association of the feel of the musical modes to that which best characterized the different tribes of ancient times.    The exact history is spotty at best, and I believe most attempts for the layman to figure out a direct relationship here is impossible. 

Ancient people, tribes and kingdoms

How do I Remember the Mode Names?

Consider using an acrostic to help memorize the mode names. An acrostic is a poem in which the first letter, syllable or word of each line spells out a word or a message.  For example, the G-Clef sequence of music EGBDF can be remember with an acrostic: (E)very (G)ood (B)oy (D)oes (F)ine... or as my childhood music teach taught us (E)lectric (G)reen (B)ananas (D)on't (F)ly.  Similarly, we can use Acrostics to remember the modes.  Here are some mode-related acrostics I have found on the internet:

Ionian Dorian Phrygian Lydian Mixolydian Aeolian Locrian
1 I Do Play Lovely Music At Lighthouses
2 I Don't Play Loud Music After Lunch
3 If Dora Plays Like Me All's Lost
4 I Don't Play Like My Aunt Lucy
5 I Don't Play Like Mr. Alex Lifeson
6 I Don't Play Like Mike And Larry
7 I Don't Play Like Malmsteen And Laiho
8 Ike Did Presidential Life Majestically And Loyally
9 I Don't Particularly Like Modes A Lot
10 I Doubt Phyllis Likes Mustard And Lettuce

What is the Quality / Style / Feel of each Mode?

Each mode has a different feel.  The modes are listed here in the bright-to-dark order (thanks to JonPR for demonstration this in the acoustics guitar forum).   

Mode Type Quality Style
Lydian (IV) Major Airy, Dreamy, Floating, Anticipation, Happy * Jazz, Fusion, Rock, Country
Ionian (I) Major Bright, Happy, Upbeat Rock, Country, Jazz, Fusion
Mixolydian (V) Major Bluesy, Angelical, of Youth, uniting pleasure and sadness Blues, Country, Rockabilly, and Rock, Celtic
Dorian (II) Mountain Minor Minor Jazzy feel, Jazzy, Sophisticated, Soulful, Serious Jazz, Fusion, Blues, and Rock
Aeolian (VI) Natural/Classic Minor Sad, Sorrowful, somber, unhappy Pop, Blues, Rock, Heavy Metal, Country, Fusion, Folk
Phrygian (III) Minor Spanish Flavor, Flamenco-esque, Mystic, Vehement, Inciting anger Flamenco, Fusion, Speed Metal
Locrian (VII) Half-Diminished Dark, Sinister, Tension, Wanting to Resolve Jazz, Fusion

* Some of the quality and style descriptions provided here have been discovered by reading GUITAR LESSON WORLD - MODES by Patrick MacFalane.

Here is a look at JonPR's table with a few enhancements... e.g., I added the relative key column to the left, bolded the notes when they are changed and added the frequency of the notes to help visually what is being heard.  This table shows how the next mode is reached by lowering one note for each mode down.

B E LYDIAN E . F# . G# . A# B . C# . D# E major w/ #4
E E IONIAN E . F# . G# A . B . C# . D# E major
A E MIXOLYDIAN E . F# . G# A . B . C# D . E major w/ b7
D E DORIAN E . F# G . A . B . C# D . E minor w/ maj6
G E AEOLIAN E . F# G . A . B C . D . E minor
C E PHRYGIAN E F . G . A . B C . D . E minor w/ b2
F E LOCRIAN E F . G . A Bb . C . D . E minor w/ b5 & b2
Freq. in Hz 82.4 87.3 92.5 98 103.8 110 116.5 123.4 130.8 138.5 146.8 155.5 164.8

What are the Mechanics of the Modes?

The mechanics are slightly different for each mode.

Mode Degree Note Interval Formula
Ionian I Do 1-1-½-1-1-1-½ Root -2-3-4-5-6-7-Octave
Dorian II Re 1-½-1-1-1-½-1 Root-2-♭3-4-5-6-♭7-Octave
Phrygian III Mi ½-1-1-1-½-1-1 Root-♭2-♭3-4-5-♭6-♭7-Octave
Lydian IV Fa 1-1-1-½-1-1-½ Root-2-3-#4-5-6-7-Octave
Mixolydian V Sol 1-1-½-1-1-½-1 Root-2-3-4-5-6-♭7-Octave
Aeolian VI La 1-½-1-1-½-1-1 Root-2-♭3-4-5-♭6-♭7-Octave
Locrian VII Ti ½-1-1-½-1-1-1 Root-♭2-♭3-4-♭5-♭6-♭7-Octave

UPDATE: How Learning Modes Helps to Play the Guitar

Steve asks, "...Would you care to expand on how learning modes has actually helped you (play guitar)?", relative to a post I put up at the acoustic guitar forum:

I have tried to answer this question of how learning modes have helped me play guitar in this video.

I hope this helps you learn modes as the info has helped me. Check out the Acoustic Guitar Forum for more discussions on modes!

-- Robert

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

ImageCompare of the Absecon Lighthouse

Here is an ImageCompare (PrimeFaces) feature of the Absecon Lighthouse

And this is how it's done:

<iframe height="720" src="" width="560"></iframe>


       width="550" height="700"/>   

-- Robert

Friday, September 26, 2014

Top Ten Reasons Not to Share your raw DNA data

The wonder of Life
I have fallen in love with genealogy and finding and becoming friends with my previously unknown cousins.  I have found many of my cousins through DNA matches on  However, I have recently found tools that provide additional analysis features with raw AncestryDNA data, such as the features of

What is curious is that I have asked many of my potential cousin matches to upload their AncestryDNA to GEDMatch, and to my surprised, many individuals didn't want to do it.  I didn't understand why, so I thought I create a list (with some thought) as to why people may shy against sharing their DNA.

This is what I came up with as my Top Ten Reasons Not to Share your DNA

10.  You have bad Genes

Perhaps you have bad genetics that you don't want people to know about, e.g., your potential spouse, you may wish to hide your DNA.  But seriously, wouldn't it be better to know, so you can manage your own health and the health of your children?

9.  You are concerned about Employers Discriminating against your bad Genes

It may sound far-fetched that employers would discriminate against DNA that may show health concerns... but it is an issue, so much so, there is an act guarding against the activity; Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008

8. You've committed a crime

If you've committed a crime where your DNA may have been collected, you definitely do not want to share your DNA, as one day a match could be made. Please don't commit any more crimes.

7. You plan on committing a crime

If you plan on committing a crime, or assume that you may do something illegal one day, don't share your DNA.  My advice though, don't plan on committing crimes... you'd be better off getting a Life Coach.

6. You don't want to be found

If you are hiding, don't share your DNA.  Btw, why are you hiding?

Seriously, if you don't want to be found, don't share your DNA, you could be getting phone calls and e-mails when you least expect it.

5. You wish not to uncover the Creepy

Believe it our not, there can be creepy things in your DNA.

4.  You are frugal

If you don't have the time or the money, don't bother paying for a DNA test  doing the research to find your extended family members, or sharing and collaborating about your data... as you'll find yourself paying for more and more DNA test, features and services, and it will slowly become into an expensive obsession for you.

3. You are a Racist

If you are a racist and you have some DNA in you that you don't want everyone to know about, you may not want to share your DNA.  Racism is a bad thing; so you should consider not being a racist.

2. You may change your mind

If you are unsure that you want to share your DNA, don't.  Once it's out there people can persist your data, and you have no control on getting it back from them.

And the number one reason not to share your raw DNA...

1.  You are paranoid

If you are paranoid, probably most of the preceding reasons will apply to you,  so keep your stress down and keep your DNA to yourself.

That's it!  Btw, can you think of any other reasons not to share your DNA data?  If so, please share in the comment section below.

-- Robert

UPDATE: Reading this through, these all seem a little extreme, many may choose not to share their raw DNA simply because they don't want to, and for no other reason.  And that's perfectly understandable too.

Thursday, September 18, 2014

How to make 200K a year on YouTube

Goal: Make $550.00 a day on YouTube within 30 days, which is roughly $200,000 a year. This is a challenge for me and you!

Let's do it, the following table shows you how I am building up to $ 550.00 a day on YouTube. If I fail to reach the goal of any day, I will stop otherwise, let's see how far we can go with the endeavor.

Day Date AdSense
Goal $
Actual $
(End of Day)
0 9/17/14 None $ 0.42 61 27,847 Created/Uploaded, "How to play Wagon Wheel on Guitar"
1 9/18/14 $ 0.10 $ 0.17 62 27,945 Created/Uploaded, "How to play seventh chords on Guitar"
2 9/19/14 $ 1.00 $ 1.12 62 28,094 Created/Uploaded, "How to setup an acoustic Guitar Pickup"
3 9/20/14 $ 1.50 Created new playlist with videos, "Heritage Park in Absecon"
4 9/21/14 $ 2.00
5 9/22/14 $ 3.00
6 9/23/14 $ 4.00
7 9/24/14 $ 5.00
8 9/25/14 $ 7.50
9 9/26/14 $ 10.00
10 9/27/14 $ 15.00
11 9/28/14 $ 20.00
12 9/29/14 $ 30.00
13 9/30/14 $ 50.00
14 10/01/14 $ 75.00
15 10/02/14 $ 100.00
16 10/03/14 $ 130.00
17 10/04/14 $ 160.00
18 10/05/14 $ 190.00
19 10/06/14 $ 220.00
20 10/07/14 $ 250.00
21 10/08/14 $ 280.00
22 10/09/14 $ 310.00
23 10/10/14 $ 340.00
24 10/11/14 $ 370.00
25 10/12/14 $ 400.00
26 10/13/14 $ 430.00
27 10/14/14 $ 460.00
28 10/15/14 $ 490.00
29 10/16/14 $ 520.00
30 10/17/14 $ 550.00

No need for me to do this alone, make a table yourself and add your link to it below in the comments. Let's see who can get to $ 550.00 a day first... remember, you can't miss any milestones or you have to stop. -- Robert

Saturday, September 6, 2014

Downloading your Raw AncestryDNA Data

You can use your raw AncestryDNA with other online utilities like and Promethease.

While downloading your raw AncestryDNA is very easy to do, many people don't know where to look for it... so this blog post tells you where it is.

So, where can I download my raw AncestryDNA data?

Step 1: Simply log into and goto "Your DNA Home Page" or

Step 2: Click on the Settings button as identified in the blue circle in the following image.

Step 3: After going to the settings page, click on "Get Started" in the Actions Pane which denotes, "Download your raw DNA data".  From there, just follow the instructions.

Dowloading raw AncestryDNA

How do I upload my raw AncestryDNA data to various utilities?

With and, you will want to upload the whole ZIP file. - upload utility is free to use, as of the time of this writing, Promethease costs $5 dollars.

Promethease - upload utility

 As always, I hope this information has been helpful.

-- Robert

Saturday, August 30, 2014

Matching up centiMorgans (cMs) with relationships

Are you trying to match up centiMorgans (cMs) with genealogical relationships?

If so, check out the chart below (click on it to ENLARGE).  Note that the percents and ranges provided in the notes are relative to the relationships in the corresponding horizontal rows (i.e., not the columns).

Mapping relationships to centiMorgans (cMs) - click to enlarge

Also note that this chart work pretty good with the results returned when using

-- Robert

Tuesday, August 26, 2014

Top 20 Liguori's and their claims to Fame

Here is my list of the top 20 well-known Liguori's and their claims to Fame
(If I missed anyone really important, please comment below)

1. Saint Alphonsus Maria de' Liguori

Italian Catholic bishop, spiritual writer, scholastic philosopher and theologian.

2. Peter Liguori 

President and Chief Executive Officer of Tribune Company Inc

3. Ann Liguori

Sports radio and television personality

4. Chris Liguori

American mixed martial artist

5. Jerry Liguori

Bird of Prey photographer

6. Michael V Liguori

Natural Language Processing Expert


 7. Nicky Liguori

Author of The Adventures of Daniel and Tasco

8. Joseph Liguori

Criminal and Injury Lawyer

9. Roberta Liguori

Mental Coach

10. Stephen Liguori

Founder of Liguori Innovation

11. Riccardo Liguori


12. Michael Liguori

Power Blogger

13. Christina Liguori

Power Blogger


14. Paul Liguori

Harvard Wrestler
Website: TBD


15. Liz Liguori


16. Dr. Eric Liguori

Entrepreneur and researcher

17. Alice Liguori

Gaming YouTuber

18. Craig Liguori

"Runs the best bowling alley on Long Island" -- Craig Liguori
Website: TBD

19. Lisa Liguori

 Founder/owner of Simply Beauty Minerals

And then there's me...

20. Robert James Liguori

Technology Author

Do you know of any other well known Liguori's?  Add them to the comments below. :)

-- Robert